Taijiquan is an important item of traditional national sports in China, and has been favored by many domestic and foreign enthusiasts, and its relationship with Qigong has always been a concern. Tai Chi is the word "Zhouyi": "Easy to have Tai Chi, is born two instruments." "Because the action of Taijiquan is round and coherent, continuous is like the Taiji figure."
The origin and genre of Taijiquan
The Times of the origins of Taijiquan are different from those of the founders. Xu Xuanping (Tang Dynasty), Zhang Sanfeng (Song Dynasty), Zhang (Ming Dynasty), Chen Wangting (late Ming) and Wang Zongyue (Qing Dynasty), and other experts in different periods were regarded as the founder of Taijiquan. Although these studies are based on each have their own basis and "do not give up", but at present the founder of Taijiquan is more generally recognized in the late Ming and early Qing Dynasty, Henan Wen County Chen Jia Gou Chen Wangting. In the following two hundred or three hundred years of development process, formed a number of schools, in addition to Chen Wangting Chen Style Taijiquan, there are Yang Luchan, Wu Yiquan, Wu Yuxiang, Sun Lu, Yang-style, Wu Shi, Wu-style, sun-style Taijiquan and other five schools; These schools are divided into different racks, the main frame type such as: Chen-type old frame, new frame, small frame, Yang type large frame, martial type, Wu-style, sun-type small racks and other seven-frame style. At present, the most widely circulated in Yang-type large frame. In order to facilitate the popularization of the mass Taijiquan movement, in the 50, the former National sports organization experts, based on Yang Style Taijiquan, Shanfanjiujian put forward a simplified taijiquan. There is also the view that Yang style Taijiquan by Yang Luchan adapted Chen Style Taijiquan, and other schools are derived from Yang style. Each faction boxing law's routine and the pushing hands and so on basically consistent, tactics eight potential (掤, 捊, Squeeze, press, mining, 挒, Elbow, rely on) and footwork five potential (progress, retrogression, Zoogu, right hope, the fixed) is also roughly the same, but in the frame and the strength of each have characteristics. In addition, Taiji sword, Taiji pushing hands, tai chi dance, etc., also derived from Taijiquan, the equivalent of Taiji family "descendants generation."
It is worth mentioning that the practice and function of Taijiquan in various periods are different. The early Taijiquan pays attention to the martial arts, the boxing method takes the action primarily, and each movement contains "the striking person, protects the body" two layers meaning, "four two dials the heavy", "the with softness" and so on, is the early Taijiquan main characteristic. Speculation may be related to the identity of Chen Wangting, according to "Wen County" records, the founder of Taijiquan Chen Wangting Ming Dynasty Jinnwen County soldiers garrison. Some people will this period of Taijiquan practice, known as "practice." Since then, the role of Taijiquan to the martial arts, performance (competition), Health (medical) Three aspects of development, and the elements of the boxing and defense gradually weakened. At present, the boxing effect of Taijiquan has almost disappeared, the task of performance and competition is mainly borne by professionals, while the mass Taijiquan movement is mainly used for health care, exercise often requires action and ideas, breathing, action itself also pay more attention to the meridian, Bones and viscera and other adjustment role. Some people call this exercise "static practice" of Taijiquan. Therefore, "Modern Chinese Dictionary" said Taijiquan "can be used for boxing, but also to enhance physical fitness and control the role of disease."
Modern Taijiquan always with round, slow, even, Taiji pattern of the round routine, slow and urgent body movements, the continuous movement of the whole body is characterized by some of these characteristics summed up in 10 aspects, namely: virtual Spirit top strength, with chest pulling back, loose waist, divided into the actual situation, the shoulder down elbow, the intention does not force, up and down, together, internal and external consistency, connected constantly, Static in motion; and its health care function is subdivided into 8 major functions, namely: strong rib strong bones, dredge meridians, Reconcile qi and blood, Balance yin and yang, coordination of viscera, cultivate vitality, physical fitness, longevity, including the eight law of Traditional Chinese medicine, and the law and the general elimination method. Therefore, Taijiquan can be used in addition to health care, as a kind of physical therapy for chronic disease adjuvant treatment and rehabilitation.
The Qigong elements of Taijiquan
Taijiquan and Qigong belong to the category of traditional national sports, but the origin of Qigong is much earlier than that of Taijiquan, therefore, many "factors" in qigong, such as adjusting body, breathing, regulating the heart (collectively, "three-tone") theory and Method, "three-tune" of the requirements and operation of the unity by the various factions of Taijiquan founder and descendants of the reference, in the health care as the main role of "Static Practice", qigong "element" is particularly prominent.
In the "three-tone" content, Qigong to the "vegetarian ask," The ancient naïve theory of "breathing essence, independent guarding God, muscle if one" as the guide, stressed that three indispensable. Qigong the Ancients thought that "suck new spit so to refine dirty" role, its shape has wind, gas, breath, four kinds of breath, the way has chest breathing, abdominal breathing (and can be divided into shun, inverse two) and mixed breathing three kinds, according to their characteristics and significance, exercise advocated "not sound, not knot, not coarse, access to the continuous, if the death, the capital God stability, Feeling hold Yue Yu, and with deep, long, fine, uniform, light abdominal breathing (especially reverse abdominal breathing) for the pursuit of goals. This has been fully reflected in Taijiquan, the breathing method of well-trained people, and the above requirements and goals are more consistent. There are many ways and methods of qigong adjustment, but it always takes relaxing meditation as basic requirement and "Getting Started" path. These characteristics are embodied in Taijiquan, is the intention, practice and intention of not force requirements, Lianquan before the calm, ideological concentration, Lianquan in the calm body pine, to the Italian guide gas, such as the Lianquan points of attention. The understanding of the importance of qigong is embodied in the old saying that "the form is not in the air, the gas is not smooth", including the posture and the action two parts. The "guide map" unearthed in Mawangdui reflects the diversity of the early Qigong style, which seems to be able to see some "shadow" of Taijiquan. However, whether it is difficult or the breadth of the role of the body, Qigong is not as Taijiquan, so the form of Taijiquan is "from Qigong and more than Qigong." As for the deficiency of the spirit, including the chest pull back, shoulder vertical elbow, such as body requirements and characteristics, Taijiquan and qigong completely consistent.
In the "three-tone" combined, qigong thought "... Adjust the body ... Breathing ... Adjust the heart, the three should be combined, not to say ", to" order ... Body and heart three things to adjust, no multiplication more, and melt, that is, "three blending One" or "three-tune integration" of the exercise requirements. Although Taijiquan does not have similar words, but there are similar requirements, "Taijiquan theory" Yue: "A move, the whole body should be brisk, especially through, should be pumps, God should be restrained" "in the Practice of Taijiquan" "with the meaning of arms, Qi Guan refers to the" fighter "theory, and the characteristics of Taijiquan" up and down, consistent, connected, continuous, Moving in order to quiet "and so on, contains three of the meaning of unity.
Therefore, many Qigong researchers regard the current popular "static practice" Taijiquan as a special method of dynamic work.
Taiji Qigong and Taijiquan
Since the 50 's, there have been many dubbed "Tai Chi" Qigong work method, such as Taiji, Taiji, 36-type Taiji guided health care work, Taiji Luck (law), Taiji Qigong 18-style, Taiji Qigong 13 pile ... Careful analysis of these work methods, there are roughly the following types.
One is based on a certain type of taijiquan arrangement. such as the 36-type Taiji guided health care work, with Yang-style taijiquan on the basis of the main features of continuous silk ladder. This kind of work method's operation, the function and Taijiquan are very similar, the practitioner also all needs to have certain Taijiquan Foundation, otherwise it is difficult to grasp its essentials.
The second is "transplant" some of the movements of Taijiquan, and its "matching" the specific Qigong breathing, adjusting the heart method. such as Taiji Qigong 18-type in the beginning of breathing, Ma Buyun hand, fixed step inverted roll of the humerus, according to the palm of the gas, etc., Taiji Qigong 13-type in the beginning of the cross, and so on, basically from the Taijiquan "copy". This kind of work method of exercise is generally small, more suitable for the elderly to learn practice.
Third, according to some characteristics of Taijiquan, design the operation of three-tone qigong, or the action characteristics of Taijiquan to design qigong operation, and then with the corresponding breathing and adjustment operation. Most of the "Taiji" methods are of this type. The number of such work law is difficult to accurately statistics, the role is difficult to comment; action is often simpler, many of which also have a clear "patchwork" traces, generally only in a small range, a short period of time, "each lead two or three years".